Personality Disorders Foundation Bibliography: Genetics, Family History and Development Research

The following resources on personality disorders focus specifically on genetics, family history and development research published since 1997. This portion of the bibliography was compiled by the former Personality Disorders Foundation. Hyperlinks for some authors' names lead to the relevant abstract in the PubMed Database of the National Library of Medicine.

Genetics, Family History, and Development

Agerbo E, Nordentoft M, & Mortensen PB. Familial, psychiatric, and socioeconomic risk factors for suicide in young people: Nested case-control study. British Medical Journal. 2002 Jul 13;325(7355):74.

Ahmed AG, Salib E, & Ruben S. Psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with opiate dependence. Medicine, Science and the Law. 1999 Jul;39(3):219-27.

Arango V, Huang YY, Underwood MD, & Mann JJ. Genetics of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2003 Sep-Oct;37(5):375-86.

Asarnow RF, Nuechterlein KH, Fogelson D,et al. Schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of children with schizophrenia: The UCLA family study. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;58(6):581-8.

Barone L. Developmental protective and risk factors in borderline personality disorder: A study using the Adult Attachment Interview. Attachment & Human Development. 2003 Mar;5(1):64-77.

Berenbaum H, Valera EM, & Kerns JG. Psychological trauma and schizotypal symptoms. Schizophrenic Bulletin. 2003;29(1):143-52.

Bergman AJ, Silverman JM, Harvey PD, et al. Schizotypal symptoms in the relatives of schizophrenia patients: An empirical analysis of the factor structure. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2000;26(3):577-86.

Bird HR. Psychoanalytic perspectives on theories regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 2001 Spring;29(1):57-71. Review.

Blair RJ, Colledge E, Murray L, & Mitchell DG. A selective impairment in the processing of sad and fearful expressions in children with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2001 Dec;29(6):491-8.

Blum K, Braverman ER, Wu S, Cull JG, et al. Association of polymorphisms of dopamine ID2 receptor (DRD2), and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes with schizoid/avoidant behaviors (SAB). Molecular Psychiatry. 1997 May;2(3):239-46.

Cadenhead KS. Vulnerability markers in the schizophrenia spectrum: Implications for phenomenology, genetics, and the identification of the schizophrenia prodrome. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2002 Dec;25(4):837-53.

Chabrol H, & Armitage J. Substance use and the development of antisocial personality in depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;59(7):665; discussion 665. Letter.

Chen WJ, Liu SK, Chang CJ, et al. Sustained attention deficit and schizotypal personality features in nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 Sep;l 55(9):1214-20.

Coid, JW. Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999 Jun;174:530-8.

Constantino JN, Cloninger CR, Clarke AR, et al. Application of the seven-factor model of personality to early childhood. Psychiatry Research. 2002 Apr 15;109(3):229-43.

Constantino JN, Murphy DL, & Morris JA. Family psychiatric history, cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites, and temperament in infants. Biological Psychiatry. 1999 Mar 1;45(5):626-32.

Constantino JN, Morris JA, & Murphy DL. CSF 5-HIAA and family history of antisocial personality disorder in newborns. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;154(12):1771-3.

Compton K, Snyder J, & Schrepferman L. The contribution of parents and siblings to antisocial and depressive behavior in adolescents: A double jeopardy coercion model. Development and Psychopathology. 2003 Winter;15(1):163-82.

Crawford TN, Cohen P, & Brook JS. Dramatic-erratic personality disorder symptoms: I. Continuity from early adolescence into adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Aug;15(4):319-35.

Crawford TN, Cohen P, & Brook JS. Dramatic-erratic personality disorder symptoms: II. Developmental pathways from early adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Aug;15(4):336-50.

Dadds MR, & Salmon K. Punishment insensitivity and parenting: Temperament and learning as interacting risks for antisocial behavior. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2003 Jun;6(2):69-86.

Dinwiddie SH. Characteristics of injection drug users derived from a large family study of alcoholism. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1997 Jul-Aug;38(4):218-229.

Dubo ED, Zanarini MC, Lewis RE, & Williams AA. Childhood antecedents of self-destructiveness in borderline personality disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 Feb;42(l):63-9.

Durbin CE, Klein DN, & Schwartz JE. Predicting the 2 1/2-year outcome of dysthymic disorder: The roles of childhood adversity and family history of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2000 Feb;68(1):57-63.

Faraone SV, Biederman J, & Monuteaux MC. Attention-deficit disorder and conduct disorder in girls: Evidence for a familial subtype. Biological Psychiatry. 2000 Jul 1;48(1):21-9.

Faraone SV, Biederman J, Jetton JG, & Tsuang MT. Attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder: Longitudinal evidence for a familial subtype. Psychological Medicine. 1997 Mar;27(2):291-300.

Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mennin D, & Russell R. Bipolar and antisocial disorders among relatives of ADHD children: Parsing familial subtypes of illness. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1998 Feb 7;81(1):108-16.

Farrington DP. Psychosocial predictors of adult antisocial personality and adult convictions. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 2000;18(5):605-22.

Ferro T, & Klein DN. Family history assessment of personality disorders: 1. Concordance with direct interview and between pairs of informants. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Summer;11(2):123-36.

Frick PJ. Juvenile psychopathy from a developmental perspective: Implications for construct development and use in forensic assessments. Law and Human Behavior. 2002 Apr;26(2):247-53. Comment.

Fonagy P. Attachment and borderline personality disorder. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 2000;48(4):1129-46; discussion 1175-87.

Frost RO, Steketee G, Williams LF, & Warren R. Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: A comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2000 Nov;38(11):1071-81.

Gambini 0, Campana A, Macciardi F, & Scarone S. A preliminary report of a strong genetic component for thought disorder in normals. A twin study. Neuropsychobiology. 1997;36(1):13-8.

Geijer T, Frisch A, Persson ML, et al. Search for association between suicide attempt and serotonergic polymorphisms. Psychiatric Genetics. 2000 Mar;10(1):19-26.

Gelernter J, Kranzler H, Coccaro E, et al. D4 dopamine-receptor (DRD4) alleles and novelty seeking in substance-dependent, personality-disorder, and control subjects. American Journal of Human Genetics. 1997 Nov;61(5):1144-52.

Goodman G, Hull JW, Clarkin JF, & Yeomans FE. Childhood antisocial behaviors as predictors of psychotic symptoms and DSM-III-R borderline criteria among inpatients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Spring;13(1):35-46.

Harwood D, Hawton K, Hope T, & Jacoby R. Psychiatric disorder and personality factors associated with suicide in older people: A descriptive and case-control study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;16(2):155-65.

Holmes SE, Slaughter JR, & Kashani J. Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2001 Spring;31(3):183-93. Review.

Irwin HJ. The relationship between dissociative tendencies and schizotypy: An artifact of childhood trauma? Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2001 Mar;57(3):331-42.

Jang KL, Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, & Livesley WJ. Twin study of dissociative experience. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998 Jun;l-86(6):345-51.

Johnson BA, Brent DA, Bridge J, & Connolly J. The familial aggregation of adolescent suicide attempts. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998;97:18-24.

Johnson JG, Cohen P, Brown J, et al. Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;56(7):600-6.

Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kotler L, et al. Psychiatric disorders associated with risk for the development of eating disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2002 Oct;70(5):1119-28.

Johnson JG, Cohen P, Smailes EM, et al. Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2001 Jan;42(1):16-23.

Joyce PR, McKenzie JM, Luty SE, et al. Temperament, childhood environment and psychopathology as risk factors for avoidant and borderline personality disorders. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Dec;37(6):756-64.

Kasen S, Cohen P, Skodol AE, et al. Childhood depression and adult personality disorder: Alternative pathways of continuity. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;58(3):231-6.

Keefe RS, Silverman JM, Mohs RC, et al. Eye tracking, attention, and schizotypal symptoms in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1997 Feb;54(2):169-76.

Kendler KS, Davis CG, & Kessler RC. The familial aggregation of common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey: A family history study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 Jun; I 70:541-8.

Kendler KS, & Gardner CO. The risk for psychiatric disorders in relatives of schizophrenic and control probands: A comparison of three independent studies. Psychological Medicine. 1997 Mar;27(2):411-9.

Klein DN, Schatzberg AF, McCullough JP, et al. Age of onset in chronic major depression: Relation to demographic and clinical variables, family history, and treatment response. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1999 Oct;55(2-3):149-57.

Klein DN, & Shih JH. Depressive personality: Associations with DSM-III-R mood and personality disorders and negative and positive affectivity, 30-month stability, and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1998 107:319-27.

Kremen WS, Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, et al. Sex differences in neuropsychological function in non-psychotic relatives of schizophrenic probands. Psychiatry Research. 1997 Feb 7;66(2-3):131-44.

Krueger RF, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, et al. Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications. Behavior Genetics. 1998 May;28(3):173-86.

Krueger RF, Hicks BM, & McGue M. Altruism and antisocial behavior: Independent tendencies, unique personality correlates, distinct etiologies. Psychological Science. 2001 Sep;12(5):397-402.

Langbehn DR, Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, et al. Distinct contributions of conduct and oppositional defiant symptoms to adult antisocial behavior: Evidence from an adoption study. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998 Sep;55(9):821-9.

Laporte L, & Guttman H. Abusive relationships in families of women with borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa and a control group. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2001 Aug;189(8):522-31.

Lara ME, Ferro T, & Klein DN. Family history assessment of personality disorders: II. Association with measures of psychosocial functioning in direct evaluations with relatives. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Summer;11(2):137-45.

Liotti G, & Pasquini P. Predictive factors for borderline personality disorder: Patients' early traumatic experiences and losses suffered by the attachment figure. The Italian Group for the Study of Dissociation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000 Oct;102(4):282-9.

Linney YM, Murray RM, Peters ER, et al. A quantitative genetic analysis of schizotypal personality traits. Psychological Medicine. 2003 Jul;33(5):803-16.

Lu RB, Lin WW, Lee JF, et al. Neither antisocial personality disorder nor antisocial alcoholism is associated with the MAO-A gene in Han Chinese males. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 2003 Jun;27(6):889-93.

Lynam DR. Fledgling psychopathy: A view from personality theory. Law and Human Behavior. 2002 Apr;26(2):255-9. Comment.

Machon RA, Huttunen MO, Mednick SA, et al. Adult schizotypal personality characteristics and prenatal influenza in a Finnish birth cohort. Schizophrenia Research. 2002 Mar 1;54(1-2):7-16.

Masten AS, Hubbard JJ, & Gest SD. Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Developmental Psychopathology. 1999 Winter;11(1):143-69.

Mayeux L, & Cillessen AH. Development of social problem solving in early childhood: Stability, change, and associations with social competence. Journal of Genetic Psychology. 2003 Jun;164(2):153-73.

Meyer B, & Carver CS. Negative childhood accounts, sensitivity, and pessimism: A study of avoidant personality disorder features in college students. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Fall;14(3):233-48.

Miller P, Byrne M, Hodges A, & Lawrie SM. Schizotypal components in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia: Early findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;180:179-84.

Modestin J, Matutat B, & Wurmle O. Antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2001 251(1):42-7.

Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Harrington H, & Milne BJ. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Developmental Psychopathology. 2002 Winter;14(1):179-207.

Moss HB, Lynch KG, Hardie TL, & Baron DA. Family functioning and peer affiliation in children of fathers with antisocial personality disorder and substance dependence: Associations with problem behaviors. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002 Apr;159(4):607-14.

Myers MG, Stewart DG, & Brown SA. Progression from conduct disorder to antisocial personality disorder following treatment for adolescent substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 April 55(4):479-85.

New AS, Gelernter J, Yovell Y, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase genotype is associated with impulsive-aggression measures: A preliminary study. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1998 Feb 7;81 (1):l 3-7.

O'Connor TG, McGuire S, Reiss D, et al. Co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence: A common genetic liability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1998 Feb;107(l):27-37.

O'Connor TG, Neiderhiser JM, Reiss D, et al. Genetic contributions to continuity, change, and co-occurrence of antisocial and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 1998 Mar;39(3):323-36.

Olin SS, Raine A, Cannon TD, et al. Childhood behavior precursors of schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 1997 23:93-103.

Paris J. Personality disorders over time: Precursors, course and outcome. Journal of Personal Disorders. 2003 Dec;17(6):479-88.

Paris J. Does childhood trauma cause personality disorders in adults? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;43(2):148-53. Review.

Parsian A, Cloninger CR, & Zhang, ZH. Association studies of polymorphisms of CYP2El gene in alcoholics with cirrhosis, antisocial personality, and normal controls. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 1998 Jun;22(4):888-91.

Pevalin DJ, Wade TJ, & Brannigan A. Precursors, consequences and implications for stability and change in pre-adolescent antisocial behaviors. Prevention Science. 2003 Jun;4(2):123-36.

Pfeffer CR, Normandin L, Kakuma T, et al. Suicidal children grow up: Relations between family psychopathology and adolescents' lifetime suicidal behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998 May;186(5):269-75.

Raine A, Mellingen K, Liu J, et al. Effects of environmental enrichment at ages 3-5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;160(9):1627-35.

Ramklint M, von Knorring AL, von Knorring L, & Ekselius L. Child and adolescent psychiatric disorders predicting adult personality disorder: A follow-up study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;57(1):23-8.

Reti IM, Samuels JF, & Eaton WW. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2002 Aug;106(2):126-33.

Reti IM, Samuels JF, Eaton WW, et al. Influences of parenting on normal personality traits. Psychiatry Research. 2002 Aug 5;111(1):55-64.

Rende R, Weissman M, Rutter M, et al. Psychiatric disorders in the relatives of depressed probands. II. Familial loading for comorbid non-depressive disorders based upon proband age of onset. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1997 Jan;42(l):23-8.

Riso LP, Miyatake RK, & Thase ME. The search for determinants of chronic depression: A review of six factors. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2002 Jul;70(2):103-15. Review.

Rosenberg DR, Sweeney JA, Squires-Wheeler E, et al. Eye-tracking dysfunction in offspring from the New York High-Risk Project: Diagnostic specificity and the role of attention. Psychiatry Research. 1997 Feb 7;66(2-3):121-30.

Ryle A. The structure and development of borderline personality disorder: A proposed model. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 Jan;170:82-7.

Saltaris C. Psychopathy in juvenile offenders. Can temperament and attachment be considered as robust developmental precursors? Clinical Psychology Review. 2002 Jun;22(5):729-52.

Samuels J, Nestadt G, Bienvenu OJ, et al. Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;177:457-62.

Sander T, Harms H, Dufeu P, et al. Serotonin transporter gene variants in alcohol-dependent subjects with dissocial personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 1998 Jun 15;43(12):908-12.

Seagrave D, & Grisso T. Adolescent development and the measurement of juvenile psychopathy. Law and Human Behavior. 2002 Apr;26(2):219-39. Review.

Silverman JM, Smith CJ, Guo SL, et al. Lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenic probands and their siblings with schizophrenia-related disorders. Biological Psychiatry. 1998 Jan 15;43(2):97-106.

Silverthorn P, & Frick PJ. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: The delayed-onset pathway in girls. Developmental Psychopathology. 1999 Winter;11(1)101-26.

Shaw DS. Advancing our understanding of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2003 Apr;31(2):193-9; Comment on 4 papers. Discussion 201-3.

Shaw DS, Bell RQ, & Gilliom M. A truly early starter model of antisocial behavior revisited. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2000 Sep;3(3):155-72.

Skodol AE, Siever LJ, Livesley WJ, et al. The borderline diagnosis II: Biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biological Psychiatry. 2002 Jun 15;51(12):951-63. Review.

Slutske WS, Heath AC, Dinwiddie SH, et al. Modeling genetic and environmental influences in the etiology of conduct disorder: A study of 2,682 adult twin pairs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1997 May;106(2):266-79.

Snow M, & Thurber S. Cognitive imbalance and antisocial personality characteristics. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1997 Jun;53(4):351-4.

Stallings MG, Cherny SS, Young SE, et al. The familial aggregation of depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior, and alcohol abuse. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1997 Apr 18;74(2):183-91.

Stein MB, Chartier MJ, Hazen AL, & Kozak MV. A direct-interview family study of generalized social phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;155(1):90-7.

Stein MB, Jang KL, & Livesley WJ. Heritability of social anxiety-related concerns and personality characteristics: A twin study. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders. 2002 Apr;190(4):219-24.

Stevens D, Charman T, & Blair RJ. Recognition of emotion in facial expressions and vocal tones in children with psychopathic tendencies. The Journal of Genetic Psychology; Child behavior, Animal Behavior, and Comparative Psychology. 2001 Jun;162(2):201-11.

Stevens MC, Kaplan RF, & Hesselbrock VM. Executive-cognitive functioning in the development of antisocial personality disorder. Addictive Behavior. 2003 Mar;28(2):285-300.

Strous RD, Bark N, Parsia SS, et al. Analysis of a functional catechol-0-methyltransferase gene polymorphism in schizophrenia: Evidence for association with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Psychiatry Research. 1997 Mar 24;69(23):71-7.

Thaker GK, Ross DE, Cassady SL, et al. Smooth pursuit eye movements to extraretinal motion signals: Deficits in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998 Sep;55(9):830-6.

Thornberry TP, Freeman-Gallant A, Lizotte AJ, et al. Linked lives: The intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2003 Apr;31(2):171-84.

Tienari P, Wynne LC, Laksy K, et al. Genetic boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum: Evidence from the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;160(9):1587-94.

Tillfors M, Furmark T, Ekselius L, & Fredrikson M. Social phobia and avoidant personality disorder as related to parental history of social anxiety: A general population study. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2001 Mar;39(3):289-98.

Torgersen S, Lygren S, Oien PA, et al. A twin study of personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;41(6):416-425.

van den Bree MB, Svikis DS, & Pickens RW. Genetic influences in antisocial personality and drug use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1998 Feb 1;49(3):177-87. Review.

Varma SL, Zain AM, & Singh S. Psychiatric morbidity in the first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1997 Feb 21;74(l):7-11.

Warshaw MG, Dolan RT, & Keller MB. Suicidal behavior in patients with current or past panic disorder: Five years of prospective data from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Program. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;157(11):1876-8.

White CN, Gunderson JG, Zanarini MC, & Hudson JI. Family studies of borderline personality disorder: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2003 Jan-Feb;11(1):8-19.

Widom CS. Childhood victimization and the development of personality disorders. Unanswered questions remain. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;56(7):607-8.

Wildgoose A, Waller G, Clarke S, & Reid A. Psychiatric symptomatology in borderline and other personality disorders: Dissociation and fragmentation as mediators. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2000 Nov;188(11):757-63.

Willoughby M, Kupersmidt J, & Bryant D. Overt and covert dimensions of antisocial behavior in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2001 Jun;29(3):177-87.

Yen S, & Shea M. Recent developments in research of trauma and personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2001 Feb;3(1):52-8.

Yen S, Shea MT, Battle CL, et al. Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2002 Aug;190(8):510-8.

Yoshino A, Fukuhara T, & Kato M. Premorbid risk factors for alcohol dependence in antisocial personality disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2000 Jan;24(1):35-8.

Zanarini MC, Yong L, Frankenburg FR, & Hennen J. Severity of reported childhood sexual abuse and its relationship to severity of borderline psychopathology and psychosocial impairment among borderline inpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2002 Jun;190(6):381-7.

Zanarini MC, & Frankenburg FR. Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Spring;11(1):93-104.



This page was last reviewed by Dr Greg Mulhauser, Thursday, 14 October 2021.