Personality Disorders Foundation Bibliography: Comorbidity Research

The following resources on personality disorders focus specifically on comorbidity research published since 1997. This portion of the bibliography was compiled by the former Personality Disorders Foundation. Hyperlinks for some authors' names lead to the relevant abstract in the PubMed Database of the National Library of Medicine.


Allen JG, Huntoon J, & Evans RB. Complexities in complex posttraumatic stress disorder in inpatient women: Evidence from cluster analysis of MCMI-III Personality Disorder Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1999 Dec;73(3):449-71.

Atre-Vaidya N, & Hussain SM. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar mood disorder: Two distinct disorders or a continuum? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1999 May;187(5):313-5.

Barbato N, & Hafner RJ. Comorbidity of bipolar and personality disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 Apr;32(2):276-80.

Beckern DF, Grilo CM, Edell WS, & McGlashan TH. Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder with other personality disorders in hospitalized adolescents and adults. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;157(12):2011-6.

Bieling PJ, MacQueen GM, Marriot MJ, Robb JC, et al. Longitudinal outcome in patients with bipolar disorder assessed by life-charting is influenced by DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms. Bipolar Disorders. 2003 Feb;5(1):14-21.

Bienvenu OJ, & Stein MB. Personality and anxiety disorders: A review. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2003 Apr;17(2):139-51.

Bollinger AR, Riggs DS, Blake DD, & Ruzek JI. Prevalence of personality disorders among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2000 Apr;13(2):255-70.

Bunce SC, & Coccaro E. Factors differentiating personality-disordered individuals with and without a history of unipolar mood disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 1999;10(4):147-57.

Ciccone DS, Busichio K, Vickroy M, & Natelson BH. Psychiatric morbidity in the chronic fatigue syndrome: Are patients with personality disorder more physically impaired? Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2003 May;54(5):445-52.

Coid JW. Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health. 2002;12(3):209-26.

Comtois KA, Cowley DS, Dunner DL, & Roy-Byrne PP. Relationship between borderline personality disorder and Axis I diagnosis in severity of depression and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;60(11):752-8.

Comtois KA, Russo J, Snowden M, et al. Factors associated with high use of public mental health services by persons with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Services. 2003 Aug;54(8):1149-54.

Connor KM, Davidson JR, Hughes DC, et al. The impact of borderline personality disorder on post-traumatic stress in the community: A study of health status, health utilization, and functioning. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2002 Jan-Feb;43(1):41-8.

Davis C, Claridge G, & Cerullo D. Personality factors and weight preoccupation: A continuum approach to the association between eating disorders and personality disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1997 Jul-Aug;31(4):467-80.

Deltito J, Martin L, Riefkohl J, Austria B, et al. Do patients with borderline personality disorder belong to the bipolar spectrum? Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001 Dec;67(1-3):221-8.

Dreessen L, Hoekstra R, & Arntz A. Personality disorders do not influence the results of cognitive and behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1997 Sep-Oct;l 1(5):503-21.

Dumas P, Saoud M, Bouafia S, et al. Cannabis use correlates with schizotypal personality traits in healthy students. Psychiatry Research. 2002. Jan 31;109(1):27-35.

Grilo CM. Recent research of relationships among eating disorders and personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2002. Feb;4(1):18-24. Review.

Grilo CM, McGlashan TH, & Skodol AE. Stability and course of personality disorders: The need to consider comorbidities and continuities between axis I psychiatric disorders and axis II personality disorders. Psychiatric Quarterly. 2000 Winter;71(4):291-307.

Grilo CM, Miguel Anez L, & McGlashan TH.DSM-IV axis II comorbidity with borderline personality disorder in monolingual Hispanic psychiatric outpatients.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2002 May;190(5):324-30.

Grilo CM, Sanislow CA, & McGlashan TH. Co-occurrence of DSM-IV personality disorders with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2002 Aug;190(8):552-4.

Haw C, Hawton K, Houston K, & Townsend E. Psychiatric and personality disorders in deliberate self-harm patients. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 Jan:178(1):48-54.

Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, McGlashan TH, Dyck IR, et al. Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;159(2):276-83.

Hawton K, Houston K, Haw C, Townsend E, & Hariss L. Comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders in patients who attempted suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Aug;160(8):1494-1500.

Hayden EP, & Klein DN. Outcome of dysthymic disorder at 5-year follow-up: The effect of familial psychopathology, early adversity, personality, comorbidity, and chronic stress. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;158(11):1864-70.

Henry C, Mitropoulou V, New AS, et al. Affective instability and impulsivity in borderline personality and bipolar II disorders: Similarities and differences. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2001 Nov-Dec;35(6):307-12.

Hibbard MR, Bogdany J, Uysal S, Kepler K, et al. Axis II psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury. 2000 Jan;14(1):45-61.

Hirschfeld RM. Personality disorders and depression: Comorbidity. Depression and Anxiety. 1999;10(4):142-6. Review.

Holdcraft LC, Iacono WG, & McGue MK. Antisocial personality disorder and depression in relation to alcoholism: A community-based sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 1998 Mar;59(2):222-6.

Houston K, Hawton K, & Sheppard R. Suicide in young people aged 15-24: A psychological autopsy study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001 Mar;63(1-3):159-70.

Iketani T, Kiriike N, Stein MB, Nagao K, et al. Personality disorder comorbidity in panic disorder patients with or without current major depression.Depression and Anxiety. 2002 15(4):176-82

Iketani T, Kiriike N, Stein MB, Nagao K, et al. Relationship between perfectionism, personality disorders and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2002 Sep;106(3):171-8.

Johnson JG, Cohen P, Smailes E, et al. Adolescent personality disorders associated with violence and criminal behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Sep;157(9):1406-12.

Johnson JG, Cohen P, Skodol AE, Oldham JM, Kasen S, & Brook JS. Personality disorders in adolescence and risk of major mental disorders and suicidality during adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999 Sep;56(9):805-11.

Johnson DM, Shea MT, Yen S, Battle CL, Zlotnick C, et al. Gender differences in borderline personality disorder: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2003 Jul-Aug;44(4):284-92.

Kay JH, Altshuler LL, Ventura J, & Mintz J. Impact of axis II comorbidity on the course of bipolar illness in men: A retrospective chart review. Bipolar Disorders. 2002 Aug;4(4):237-42.

Kay JH, Altshuler LL, Ventura J, & Mintz J. Prevalence of axis II comorbidity in bipolar patients with and without alcohol use disorders. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 1999 Dec;11(4):187-95. Review.

Koenigsberg HW, Anwunah I, New AS, et al. Relationship between depression and borderline personality disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 1999;10(4):158-67. Review.

Kool S, Dekker J, Duijsens IJ, & de Jonghe F. Major depression, double depression and personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Fall;14(3):274-81.

Leibbrand R, Hiller W, & Fichter M. Influence of personality disorders on therapy outcome in somatoform disorders at 2-year follow-up. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1999 Aug;187(8):509-12.

Marinangeli MG, Butti G, Scinto A, et al. Patterns of comorbidity among DSM-III-R personality disorders. Psychopathology. 2000 Mar;33(2):69-74.

Mataix-Cols D, Baer L, Rauch SL, & Jenike MA. Relation of factor-analyzed symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder to personality disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000 Sep;102(3):199-202.

Matsunaga H, Kiriike N, Nagata T, & Yamagami S. Personality disorders among subjects recovered from eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2000 Apr;27(3):353-7.

McKay JR, Alterman AI, Cacciola JS, et al. Prognostic significance of antisocial personality disorder in cocaine-dependent patients entering continuing care. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2000 May;188(5):287-96.

Melartin TK, Rytsala HJ, Leskela US, et al. Current comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among DSM-IV major depressive disorder patients in psychiatric care in the Vantaa Depression Study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2002. Feb;63(2):126-34.

Meszaros K, & Fischer-Danzinger D. Extended suicide attempt: Psychopathology, personality and risk factors. Psychopathology. 2000 Jan-Feb;33(1):5-10.

Perugi G, Nassini S, Socci C, et al. Avoidant personality in social phobia and panic-agoraphobic disorder: A comparison. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1999 Aug;54(3):277-82.

Petersen T, Hughes M, Papakostas GI, et al. Treatment-Resistant Depression and Axis II Comorbidity. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2002 Sep-Oct;71(5):269-74.

Rettew DC. Avoidant personality disorder, generalized social phobia, and shyness: Putting the personality back into personality disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;8(6):283-97.

Rosenvinge JH, Martinussen M, & Ostensen E. The comorbidity of eating disorders and personality disorders: A meta-analytic review of studies published between 1983 and 1998. Eating and Weight Disorders. 2000 Jun;5(2):52-61.

Rossi A, Marinangeli MG, Butti G, et al. Personality disorders in bipolar and depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001 Jun;65(1):3-8.

Rothschild L, & Zimmerman M. Personality disorders and the duration of depressive episode: A retrospective study. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2002 Aug;16(4):293-303.

Rounsaville BJ, Kranzler HR, Ball S, Tennen H, et al. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Relation to substance use. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998 Feb;186(2):87-95.

Sansone RA, Whitecar P, Meier BP, & Murry A. The prevalence of borderline personality among primary care patients with chronic pain. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2001 Jul-Aug;23(4):193-7.

Serpell L, Livingstone A, Neiderman M, & Lask B. Anorexia nervosa: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or neither? Clinical Psychology Review. 2002 Jun;22(5):647-69.

Skodol AE, Oldham JM, & Gallaher PE. Axis II comorbidity of substance use disorders among patients referred for treatment of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1999 May;156(5):733-8.

Skodol AE, Stout RL, McGlashan TH, et al. Co-occurrence of mood and personality disorders: A report from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Depression and Anxiety. 1999;10(4):175-182.

Soderberg S. Personality disorders in parasuicide. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 55(3) 163-7.

Soderstrom H, Sjodin AK, Carlstedt A, & Forsman A. Adult psychopathic personality with childhood-onset hyperactivity and conduct disorder: A central problem constellation in forensic psychiatry. Psychiatry Research. 2004 Jan 1;121(3):271-80.

Suominen KH, Isometsa ET, Henriksson MM, et al. Suicide attempts and personality disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000 Aug;102(2):118-25.

Stanley B, Gameroff MJ, Michalsen V, & Mann JJ. Are suicide attempters who self-mutilate a unique population? American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;158(3):427-32.

Starcevic V, Bogojevic G, Marinkovic J, & Kelin K. Axis I and Axis II comorbidity in panic/agoraphobic patients with and without suicidal ideation. Psychiatry Research. 1999 Nov 8;88(2):153-61.

Tedlow J, Smith M, Neault N, et al. Melancholia and axis II comorbidity. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2002 Sep-Oct;43(5):331-5.

Thomas VH, Melchert TP, & Banken JA. Substance dependence and personality disorders: Comorbidity and treatment outcome in an inpatient treatment population. Journal of Studies of Alcohol. 1999 Mar;60(2):271-7.

Trull TJ, Sher KJ, Minks-Brown C, et al. Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: A review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review. 2000 Mar;20(2):235-53. Review.

van den Bosch LM, Verheul R, & van den Brink W. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder: Clinical and etiological correlates. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Oct;15(5):416-24.

Verheul R, Kranzler HR, Poling J, et al. Co-occurrence of Axis I and Axis II disorders in substance abusers. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000 Feb;101(2):110-8.

Verona E, Patrick CJ, & Joiner TE. Psychopathy, antisocial personality, and suicide risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2001 Aug;110(3):462-70.

Vieta E, Colom F, Martinez-Aran A, et al. Bipolar II disorder and comorbidity. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2000 Sep-Oct;41(5):339-43.

Westen D, & Harnden-Fischer J. Personality profiles in eating disorders: Rethinking the distinction between axis I and axis II. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;158(4):547-62.

Yen S, Shea MT, Pagano M, et al. Axis I and axis II disorders as predictors of prospective suicide attempts: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2003 Aug;112(3):375-81.

Yen S, & Shea M. Recent developments in research of trauma and personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2001 Feb;3(1):52-8.

Zanarini MC, Parachini EA, Frankenburg FR, et al. Sexual relationship difficulties among borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2003 Jul;191(7):479-82.

Zlotnick C, Johnson DM, Yen S, et al. Clinical features and impairment in women with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), BPD without PTSD, and other personality disorders with PTSD. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2003 Nov;191(11):706-13.


This page was last reviewed by Dr Greg Mulhauser, Thursday, 14 October 2021.