Personality Disorders Foundation Bibliography: Assessment and Diagnostic Issues

The following resources on personality disorders focus specifically on assessment and diagnostic issues research published since 1997. This portion of the bibliography was compiled by the former Personality Disorders Foundation. Hyperlinks for some authors' names lead to the relevant abstract in the PubMed Database of the National Library of Medicine.

Assessment and Diagnostic Issues

Ackerman SJ, Clemence AJ, Weatherill R, Hilsenroth MJ. Use of the TAT in the assessment of DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1999 Dec;73(3):422-48.

Ackerman SJ, Hilsenroth MJ, Baity MR, & Blagys MD. Interaction of therapeutic process and alliance during psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment. 2000 Aug;75(1):82-109.

Agronin ME, & Maletta G. Personality disorders in late life. Understanding and overcoming the gap in research. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2000 Winter;8(1):4-18.

Axelrod SR, Grilo CM, Sanislow C, & McGlashan TH. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief: Factor structure and convergent validity in inpatient adolescents. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Apr;15(2):168-79.

Axelrod SR, Widiger TA, Trull TJ, & Corbitt EM. Relations of five-factor model antagonism facets with personality disorder symptomatology. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1997 Oct;69(2):297-313.

Baillie AJ, & Lampe LA. Avoidant personality disorder: Empirical support for DSM-IV revisions. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1998 Spring;12(l):23-30.

Blackburn, R, & Coid JW. Empirical clusters of DSM-III personality disorders in violent offenders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Spring;13(1):18-34.

Blais MA, Hilsenroth MJ, & Fowler JC. Rorschach correlates of the DSM-IV histrionic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1998 Apr;70(2):355-64.

Blais MA, & Norman DK. A psychometric evaluation of the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Summer;11(2):168-76.

Blashfield RK, & Intoccia V. Growth of the literature on the topic of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;157(3):472-3.

Bodlund O, Grann M, Ottosson H, & Svanborg C. Validation of the self-report questionnaire DIP-Q in diagnosing DSM-IV personality disorders: A comparison of three psychiatric samples. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998 Jun;97(6):433-9.

Boone ML, McNeil DW, Masia CL, & Turk CL. Multimodal comparisons of social phobia subtypes and avoidant personality disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1999 May-Jun;13(3):271-92.

Butler AC, Brown GK, Beck AT, & Grisham JR. Assessment of dysfunctional beliefs in borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2002 Oct;40(10):1231-40.

Brandstrom S, Schlette P, Przybeck TR, & Lundberg M. Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1998 May-Jun;39(3):122-8.

Cardasis W, Hochman JA, & Silk KR. Transitional objects and borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1997 Feb;154(2):250-5.

Casey JE, & Joyce PR. Personality disorder and the Temperament and Character Inventory in the elderly. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1999 Oct;100(4):302-8.

Clark LA, Livesley WJ, & Morey L. Personality disorder assessment: The challenge of construct validity. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Fall;11(3):205-231. Review.

Cloninger CR. A practical way to diagnosis personality disorder: A proposal. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Summer;14(2):99-108.

Coccaro EF, Berman ME, & Kavoussi RJ. Assessment of life history of aggression: Development and psychometric characteristics. Psychiatry Research. 1997 Dec 5;73(3):147-57.

Coolidge FL, Thede LL, Stewart SE, & Segal DL. The Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory for Children (CPNI). Preliminary psychometric characteristics. Behavior Modification. 2002 Sep;26(4):550-66.

Davidson KM, Obonsawin MC, Seils M, & Patience L. Patient and clinician agreement on personality using the SWAP-200. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2003 Jun;17(3):208-18.

Dirks BL. Repetition of parasuicide--ICD-10 personality disorders and adversity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998 Sep;98(3):208-13.

Doublas, KS, Hart, SD, & Kropp, PR. Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory for forensic assessments. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology. 2001 45(2):183-197.

Dyce JA, O'Connor BP, Parkins SY, & Janzen HL. Correlational structure of the MCMI-III personality disorder scales and comparisons with other data sets. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1997 Dec;69(3):568-82.

Egan S, Nathan P, & Lumley M. Diagnostic concordance of ICD-10 personality and comorbid disorders: A comparison of standard clinical assessment and structured interviews in a clinical setting. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Aug;37(4):484-91.

Evans DL, Herbert JD, Nelson-Gray RO, et al. Determinants of diagnostic prototypicality judgments of the personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2002 Feb;16(1):95-106.

Farmer RF. Issues in the assessment and conceptualization of personality disorders. Clinical Psychology Review. 2000 Oct;20(7):823-51. Review.

Farmer RF, & Chapman AL. Evaluation of DSM-IV personality disorder criteria as assessed by the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2002 Jul-Aug;43(4):285-300.

Farabaugh A, Mischoulon D, Yeung A, & Alpert J. Predictors of stable personality disorder diagnoses in outpatients with remitted depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2002 Apr;190(4):248-56.

Fischer B, Haydon E, Kim G, et al. Screening for antisocial personality disorder in drug users--A qualitative exploratory study on feasibility. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. 2003;12(3):151-6.

Flynn A, Matthews H, & Hollins S. Validity of the diagnosis of personality disorder in adults with learning disability and severe behavioural problems. Preliminary study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;180:543-6.

Fossati A, Maffei C, Bagnato M, Donati D, et al. Brief communication: Criterion validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ -4+) in a mixed psychiatric sample. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1998 Summer;12(2):172-8.

Fossati A, Maffei C, Bagnato M, et al. A psychometric study of DSM-IV passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder criteria. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Spring;14(1):72-83.

Gitlin, M. Irresistible joys and discouraging pitfalls in diagnosing personality disorders. Western Journal of Medicine. 2002 May;176(3):215.

Griego J, Stewart SE, & Coolidge FL. A convergent validity study of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory with the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Fall;13(3):257-67.

Grilo CM, Becker DF, Edell WS, & McGlashan TH. Stability and change of DSM-III-R personality disorder dimensions in adolescents followed up 2 years after psychiatric hospitalization. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2001 Sep-Oct;42(5):364-8.

Grilo CM, McGlashan TH, Morey LC, Gunderson JG, et al. Internal consistency, intercriterion overlap and diagnostic efficiency of criteria sets for DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2001 Oct;104(4):264-72.

Gunderson JG, Shea MT, Skodol AE, et al. The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: Development, aims, design, and sample characteristics. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Winter;14(4):300-15.

Hare, RD. Psychopathy as a risk factor for violence. Psychiatric Quarterly. 1999 Fall;70(3):181-97. Review.

Hill J, Fudge H, Harrington R, et al. Complementary approaches to the assessment of personality disorder. The Personality Assessment Schedule and Adult Personality Functioning Assessment compared. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 May;176:434-9.

Huprich SK. Depressive personality disorder: Theoretical issues, clinical findings, and future research questions. Clinical Psychology Review. 1998 Aug;18(5):477-500.

Kopper BA, Osman A, Osman JR, & Hoffman, J. Clinical utility of the MMPI-A content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales in the assessment of suicidal risk factors in psychiatric adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1998 Feb;54(2):191-200.

Langbehn DR, Pfohl BM, Reynolds S, et al. The Iowa Personality Disorder Screen: Development and preliminary validation of a brief screening interview. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Spring;13(1):75-89.

Leichsenring F. Development and first results of the Borderline Personality Inventory: A self-report instrument for assessing borderline personality organization. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1999 Aug;73(1):45-63.

Lenzenweger MF. Stability and change in personality disorder features: The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;56(11):1009-15.

Lewinsohn PM, Rohde P, Seeley JR, & Klein DN. Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;36(12):1752-9.

Lilienfeld SO. The relation of the MMPI-2 Pd Harris-Lingoes subscales to psychopathy, psychopathy facets, and antisocial behavior: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1999 Feb;55(2):241-55.

Lilienfeld SO. Methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1998 Jan;36(l):99-125. Review.

Lindsay KA, Sankis LM, & Widiger TA. Gender bias in self-report personality disorder inventories. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Fall;14(3): 218-32.

Lingiardi V, Lonati C, Delucchi F, et al. Defense mechanisms and personality disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1999 Apr;187(4):224-8.

Livesley WJ. Suggestions for a framework for an empirically based classification of personality disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;43(2):137-47. Review.

Loving JL. Treatment planning with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 2002 Jun;46(3):281-93.

Maggini C, Ampollini P, Marchesi C, et al. Relationships between Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire dimensions and DSM-III-R personality traits in Italian adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;41(6):426-31.

Mann AH Raven P, Pilgrim J, Khanna S, et al. An assessment of the Standardized Assessment of Personality as a screening instrument for the International Personality Disorder Examination: A comparison of informant and patient assessment for personality disorder. Psychological Medicine. 1999 Jul;29(4):985-9.

McDermott PA, Alterman AI, Cacciola JS, Rutherford MJ. Generality of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised factors over prisoners and substance dependent patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2000 Feb;68(1):181-6.

Merritt RD, Balogh DW, & Kok CJ. DSM-IV cluster A personality disorder diagnoses among young adults with a 2-7-8 MMPI profile. Assessment. 1998 Sep;5(3):273-85.

Millon T. Assessment is not enough: The SPA should participate in constructing a comprehensive clinical science of personality. Society of Personality Assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment. 2002 Apr;78(2):209-18.

Modestin J, & Puhan A. Comparison of assessment of personality disorder by patients and informants. Psychopathology. 2000 Sep-Oct;33(5):265-70.

Molinari V, Kunik ME, Mulsant B, & Rifai AH. The relationship between patient, informant, social worker, and consensus diagnoses of personality disorder in elderly depressed inpatients. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1998 Spring;6(2):136-144.

Moran P, Lesse M, Lee T, Walters P, Thornicoft G, & Mann A. Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS): Preliminary validation of a brief screen for personality disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;183:228-32.

Nelson-Gray RO, & Farmer RF. Behavioral assessment of personality disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1999 Apr;37(4):347-68.

North CS, Pollio DE, Thompson SJ, et al. A comparison of clinical and structured interview diagnoses in a homeless mental health clinic. Community Mental Health Journal. 1997 Dec;33(6):531-43.

Nurnberg HG, Martin GA, Somoza E, et al. Identifying personality disorders: Towards the development of a clinical screening instrument. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2000 Mar-Apr;41(2):137-46.

Patrick CJ, Curtin JJ, & Tellegen A. Development and validation of a brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment. 2002 Jun;14(2):150-63.

Phillips KA, Gunderson JG, Triebwasser J, et al. Reliability and validity of depressive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998 Aug;155(8):1044-8.

Pincus AL, & Wilson KR. Interpersonal variability in dependent personality. Journal of Personality. 2001 Apr;69(2):223-51.

Poling J, Rounsaville BJ, Ball S, et al. Rates of personality disorders in substance abusers: A comparison between DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Winter;13(4):375-84.

Pukrop R. Dimensional personality profiles of borderline personality disorder in comparison with other personality disorders and healthy controls. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2002 Apr;16(2):135-47.

Retzlaff P, Stoner J, & Kleinsasser D. The use of the MCMI-III in the screening and triage of offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 2002 Jun;46(3):319-32.

Rogers R, Salekin RT, & Sewell KW. Validation of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory for Axis II disorders: Does it meet the Daubert standard? Law and Human Behavior. 1999 Aug;23(4):425-43.

Rossi G, Hauben C, Van den Brande I, & Sloore H. Empirical evaluation of the MCMI-III personality disorder scales. Psychological Reports. 2003 Apr;92(2):627-42.

Salekin RT, Rogers R, & Sewell KW. Construct validity of psychopathy in a female offender sample: A multitrait-multimethod evaluation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1997 Nov;106(4):576-85.

Salekin RT, Rogers R, Ustad KL, & Sewell KW. Psychopathy and recidivism among female inmates. Law and Human Behavior. 1998 Feb;22(l):109-128.

Sanislow CA, Morey LC, Grilo CM, Gunderson JG, et al. Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2002 Jan;105(1):28-36.

Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Pfohl B, Widiger TA, et al. The borderline diagnosis I: Psychopathology, comorbidity, and personality structure. Biological Psychiatry. 2002 Jun 15;51(12):936-50. Review

Smith SR, Hilsenroth MJ, Castlebury FD, & Durham TW. The clinical utility of the MMPI-2 Antisocial Practices Content Scale. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Winter;13(4):385-93.

Squires-Wheeler E, Friedman D, Amminger GP, et al. Negative and positive dimensions of schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1997 Fall;11(3):285-300.

Stern MI, Herron WG, Primavera LH, & Kakuma T. Interpersonal perceptions of depressed and borderline inpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1997 Jan;53(l):41-9.

Strack S, Choca JP, & Gurtman MB. Circular structure of the MCMI-III personality disorder scales. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Jun;15(3):263-74.

Svanborg P, Gustavsson PJ, Mattila-Evenden M, & Asberg M. Assessment of maladaptiveness: A core issue in the diagnosing of personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Fall;13(3):241-56.

Trestman RL. Behind bars: Personality disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 2000;28(2):232-5.

Trestman RL. Clinical correlates and predictors of violence in patients with personality disorders. Psychiatric Annals. 1997 November;27(11):741-44.

Trull TJ, Widiger TA, & Burr R. A structured interview for the assessment of the Five-Factor Model of personality: Facet-level relations to the axis II personality disorders. Journal of Personality. 2001 Apr;69(2):175-98.

Uehara T, Sakado K, & Sato T. Test-retest reliability of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire: Revised. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1997 Dec;51(6):369-72.

Ullrich S, Borkenau P, & Marneros A. Personality disorders in offenders: Categorical versus dimensional approaches. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2001 Oct;15(5):442-9.

van Velzen CJ, Emmelkamp PM, & Scholing A. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder: Differences in personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2000 Jul-Aug;14(4):395-411.

Vitacco MJ, Rogers R, & Neumann CS. The antisocial process screening device: An examination of its construct and criterion-related validity. Assessment. 2003 Jun;10(2):143-50.

Vollema MG, & Hoijtink H. The multidimensionality of self-report schizotypy in a psychiatric population: An analysis using multidimensional Rasch models. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2000;26(3):565-75.

Westen D, & Muderrrisoglu S. Assessing personality disorders using a systematic clinical interview: Evaluation of an alternative to structured interviews. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2003 Aug;17(4):351-69.

Westen D, & Shedler J. Revising and assessing axis II, Part I: Developing a clinically and empirically valid assessment method. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1999 Feb;156(2):258-72.

Westen D, & Shedler J. Revising and assessing axis II, Part II: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1999 Feb;156(2):273-85.

Wilberg T, Dammen T, & Friis S. Comparing Personality Diagnostic questionnaire-4+ with Longitudinal, Expert, All Data (LEAD) standard diagnoses in a sample with a high prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2000 Jul-Aug;41(4):295-302.

Yang J, Bagby RM, Costa PT Jr, et al. Assessing the DSM-IV structure of personality disorder with a sample of Chinese psychiatric patients. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2002 Aug;16(4):317-31.

Yang J, McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr, et al. The cross-cultural generalizability of Axis-II constructs: An evaluation of two personality disorder assessment instruments in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 Fall;14(3):249-63.

Zanarini MC. Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD): A continuous measure of DSM-IV borderline psychopathology. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2003 Jun;17(3):233-42.

Zanarini MC, Ruser TF, Frankenburg FR, et al. Risk factors associated with the dissociative experiences of borderline patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2000 Jan;188(1):26-30.

Zanarini MC, Skodol AE, Bender D, et al. The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: Reliability of axis I and II diagnoses. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2000 14(4):291-299.

Zimmerman M, & Mattia JI. Differences between clinical and research practices in diagnosing borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1999 Oct;156(10):1570-4.


This page was last reviewed by Dr Greg Mulhauser, Thursday, 14 October 2021.